Это может быть
интересно только любителям истории. Недавно в NY Times была статья
колумниста Николаса Кристофа насчёт бренности существования и песков времени, а
конкретно - в ней упоминалось какие по его мнению города были самыми важными в
мире в разные моменты времени:
пассаж довольно короткий:
My vote for most important city in the world in the
period leading up to 2000 B.C. would be Ur, Iraq. In 1500 B.C.,
perhaps Thebes, Egypt. There was no
dominant player in 1000 B.C., though one could make a case for Sidon, Lebanon. In 500 B.C.,
it would be Persepolis, Persia; in the year 1,
Rome; around A.D.
500, maybe Changan, China; in 1000, Kaifeng, China; in 1500,
probably Florence, Italy; in 2000, New York; and in 2500,
probably none of the above.
написать свою версию (ответа я не получил, но впрочем Кристоф сейчас в Судане
занят противодействием геноциду или чего-то там такое):
I think your column “China, the World
Capital”, with its sweeping historical perspective, was one of the most
memorable of all recent NYT Op-Eds. However, even if this sounds as nitpicking, I would
propose some corrections to the list of the most important cities through ages
which you offered.
2000 BC – Ur: the third (and
the last) dynasty of Ur was in severe
decline in late 21-st century BC, and Ur was eventually
destroyed by an Elamite invasion. Many scholars put the exact date of the
destruction in 2004 BC, so that in 2000 BC very little was left.
I believe Thebes would be a
better candidate for the City of 2000 BC. The Middle Kingdom period just began
with a Theban dynasty, around 2050 BC, and was still very young and dynamic. Alternatively,
one of the cities of the Indus Valley civilization (Harappa or Mohenjo-Daro) could be
selected. They disappeared without a trace around 1700 BC, but in 2000 BC were
at the top of the humanity’s achievement of the time.
1500 BC – there is indeed very little alternative to Thebes (perhaps Minoan
Knossos?), where the
founding dynasty of the New Kingdom was presiding. The
transition from 2000 BC to 1500 BC wasn’t continuous, though. It was
interrupted by an almost total disintegration during the Second Intermediate
Period and the Hyksos invasion.
1000 BC – most of the Mediterranean and the Near
East world was shattered by an enormous catastrophe at the end of the Bronze
Age. Very little of the city life remained anywhere. The one which still hung
on was Tyre, not Sidon. Strength of Sidon is mostly
attested by biblical sources, most of which were composed during the seventh
and six centuries BC, when Sidon (and not Tyre) was the
preeminent Phonecian city. Archeology shows almost nothing of Sidon in tenth
500 BC – Persepolis was still very young and rapidly
expanding capital of the new magnificent empire, as well a new civilization, a
Zoroastrian one, persisting for more than a millennium until the advent of
Islam. Babylon was still
probably more important in economic and cultural sense, but within a few
decades dominance of Persepolis was
established. Alternatively, Athens of Greece, though much
smaller than the great Near Eastern cities, was only half a century from the
dazzling peak of its power and achievement.
1 AD – there is no alternative to Augustan’s Rome.
500 AD – Changan, China was in such a
long decline that it lost any significance altogether. Much better candidates
are either Constantinople or Ctesiphon of the Sassanid
1000 BC - Kaifeng is a very solid
choice. Possible alternatives could be Constantinople, Baghdad or Cordoba.
1500 – Florence dominated the
early Italian Renaissance, but after big turmoil of Savonarola, Medici
restoration in the 1490’s was in severely weakened state. Venice, though, was
at the peak of its power. And yet, within a few decades the most important city
became Madrid, still a small
dusty village in the late 15th century.
Best regards, Kirill Pankratov, Ph.D., email@example.com